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- Environmentally Benign Processing and Sustainability - Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
- Environmentally Benign Processing and Sustainability
Ships in 15 business days. Link Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed. Description Table of Contents Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! Underland Deep Time Journey. In Stock. Electronics for Dummies 3rd Edition.
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Total Cost Assessment TCA : TCA is fundamental to accounting and assigning all costs of production to the entity within the organization that generates those costs. The American Institute of Chemical Engineers www. The introductory part so far detailed the concepts, terminology, and other relevant aspects for understanding big picture of sustainable development in chemistry and environment point of view . The academic and research institutions worldwide have already started adopting the Green Chemistry track in the Chemical Sciences PhD Programme.
In addition to conventional chemistry, the research scholars obtaining a Ph. Chemistry is the study of matter. Green and sustainable chemistry offers an ecologically and environmentally benign view of chemistry research and development for relevant products and services. Chemistry lies at the very heart of everything within us and around us. Its knowledge and the methods steadily increased over the centuries. The core principles of chemistry are:.
The act of analysis, characterization, destruction or separation. The greening of a chemical product or process may be achieved through a number of means, including improved syntheses, recyclable and selective catalysts, innovative process design, utilization of renewable raw materials, production of less toxic products, use of non-volatile and environmentally friendly solvents, etc.
In other words, the concept of green chemistry can primarily be solicited in any aspect of chemistry, chemical engineering, risk assessment and toxicology. In addition to the fundamental scientific data, the financial metrics must also be taken into consideration while making environmentally optimized or greener chemical products and processes a profitable business ethic. In order for us to create and establish a more neutral chemical industry by minimizing industrial impact on human, eco-system health and resources, the goal of green chemistry, as the first step, shall be to discover and develop environmentally friendly, non-toxic and sustainable alternatives for chemical products, materials, solvents, catalysts, systems and feedstocks.
This article offers a kind-of primer or the perspective including the importance of the research line taken and its justification in the present era. The research scholar identifies i. That is why there is this moral obligation of the academicians and chemistry researchers to engage in communicating and developing the solutions to pollution issues due to chemical sciences and allied disciplines.
These research activities surely contribute to the entrepreneurial sustainable development. This mainly features selected principles of the green chemistry from the famous 12 principles of green chemistry, focusing on environmentally friendly chemical technology and tactics to minimize the occurrence and effects of pollution, including the utilization of the agricultural waste.
The approaches herein should offer solutions to some crucial problems associated with ecology, environment and synthetic chemistry applications.
The key aspect of these researches from a Ph. The valorization of agricultural residue such as the wheat husk ashes for extracting or recovering some chemical products and for converting them into useful functional or value-added products and thereby achieve sustainability. The study, in chemistry point of view, of the possible effects of some heavy metals for example, Cd, Cr, Mn, Zn, etc.
The investigation into eutrophication due to phosphate and some other chemicals and nutrients supplied in excess to an aquatic body by physico-chemical analyses. Following is the various contributions of the author who argues on how the objectives originally sought for are achieved. This describes the multi-disciplinary approach and attitude with which the topic of sustainability is understood and addressed in chemistry point of view.
Particularly the former has had a very positive influence in summarizing the many nice research results presented in this perspective. Firstly, the author provides a general introduction to sustainable development, chemistry — the science of matter and the conceptualization and importance of sustainable and green chemistry in the present era.
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The contents on sustainability in chemistry point of view form the basis for research reviewed in this aspect. Following on from the introductory part, there is a kind of Strategic Goal for sustainable development. This displays the big picture of sustainable development in chemistry point of view and includes practical approaches and the operational as well as monitoring tools.
Environmentally Benign Processing and Sustainability - Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
The concepts of green chemistry, catalysis and lifecycle assessment are interesting, and there is an urgent need to find industrial applications thereof. Many topics in chemistry and catalysis are treated in this review, with relevant references giving the brief on research and development of the underlying science and relating it to catalytic practice and industrial point of view. This may form the basis for research embodied in various other academic and industrial researches.
It is found that this recyclable catalytic system is highly active towards the C-C bond forming Knoevenagel condensation between benzaldehyde and ethyl cyanoacetate. The reaction conditions, atmospheric reactor and the use of copper promoted H-mordenite Cu-H-MOR catalysts are all meant to inhibit the methanol-to- gasoline MTG chemistry and focus on the selectivity towards the acetyl products . This led the best results and also the oxalic acid washed mordenite performed better than the neat H- MOR catalyst. It would not be arrogant to say that this new catalytic method is economically advantages over the well-established Cativa process which involves an iodide cocatalyst.
There is no need of a halide promoter and thus the reaction medium is devoid of corrosive HI which would permit industries use reactors made of less exotic and cheaper material. This point brings economic advantage to this process. Such a heterogeneous catalytic process would separate products and catalyst easily. The use of syngas as a feedstock over a hydrogen tolerant catalyst provides a cheaper alternative than purified CO.
The increase in selectivity to acetyls is directly proportional to the increase in Cu loading onto mordenite. This is an interdisciplinary approach employing knowledge from chemistry and chemical engineering to develop new process by researching in the area of heterogeneous catalysis through a combination of bench scale laboratory work ranging through to pilot plant. In an attempt to develop material wealth from wastes, the mesoporous MCM and titanium incorporated MCM type silica materials are synthesized from the wheat husk ash .
- Environmentally Benign Processing and Sustainability.
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The result is very interesting because it valorizes a significant agricultural waste stream. MCM and Ti-incorporated MCM thus prepared are tested for their catalytic applications in synthetic organic reactions. Sourcing silica from the wheat husk ashes for the syntheses of such catalytic materials has a potential cost-effective application and therefore could be adopted as a new industrial methodology.
Neat MCM represented acid catalysis and the Ti incorporated within gave redox catalytic property to the siliceous materials. In yet another research project, the hydrothermal synthesis of ZSM-5 zeolite, a microporous aluminosilicate, by sourcing silica from wheat husk ash is carried out and is followed by its modification to the various protonated forms i. Our results mainly demonstrate [i] an attractive and potential scalable and industrially viable methodology for the wheat husk ash based high-purity and useful zeolite H-ZSM-5 synthesis; [ii].
The novel catalytic applications of H-ZSM-5 are interesting because these organic transformations over this neat zeolite sample are achieved without having to introduce isomorphously substituted or extra- framework or impregnated metal ions or clusters. These interesting research schemes describe how the silica extraction methodology valorizes the wheat husk ashes and attempts to establish them as a novel re source of silica instead of an agricultural waste stream.
Environmentally Benign Processing and Sustainability
There could be some more researches meant for understanding sustainability in some ecological and environmental chemical processes. Apart from the elemental sustainability type of work and or the waste-to-wealth chemical processes of sourcing silica from the wheat husk ash, various other research schemes can appreciate sustainability. In one of the schemes of research, an age-old problem of heavy metal phytotoxicity is researched and discussed in sustainable chemistry point of view.
To examine the effect of heavy metals on wheat seed germination, aqueous concentrations of chromium Cr , cadmium Cd , manganese Mn and zinc Zn metal ions are fed over the period of eight consecutive days. The phytotoxic effects mainly on i the germination of seed, ii the seedling vigor index, iii the root, shoot, seedling growth, and also iv the tolerance indices of wheat are discussed. In this study, the germination and root length in emergence are adversely affected by aqueous concentrations of heavy metals fed to wheat seeds in Black Cotton soil of Nanded city, Maharashtra State, Republic of India.
All results, when compared to control, show gradual reduction in seed germination and the decrease in growth of root and shoot with increasing concentrations of these heavy metals. The inhibition is stronger in root than in shoot. The increasing heavy metal concentrations increase the phytotoxicity of shoot and root and decrease the tolerance indices and the seedling vigor indices.
These methods and results thus provide a model system for developing sustainability in chemistry point of view and screening of various concentrations of heavy metals for their useful micro-nutritional properties or harmful phytotoxic effects. This shall also screen for the seeds able to counteract the deleterious effects of such heavy metals in various types of irrigation waters and agricultural soils. In other words, the studies of soil contents and irrigation water systems can help us achieve sustainable chemical process in ecological and environmental perspectives .
Another research project embodied an investigation on eutorphication of a water body due to phosphate and other nutritious chemicals fed in excess to the aquatic environment. This studied chemical and physical quality parameters of water and also the composition of phytoplankton and zooplankton community as related to eutrophication or related chemistry . From the biological study of plankton diversity of this water body, it is concluded that about twenty-eight genera of phytoplankton and thirteen different genera of zooplankton are found in this water body.
The reasons behind finding such dynamics are zero availability of oxygen and free carbon dioxide. This section is meant for drawing conclusions and highlighting the importance of hands-on chemistry researches towards sustainable development. Particularly the latter has had a very positive influence in achieving and reviewing the many nice contributions or results presented herein.